Over the past few months, the subject of the 5G network in Nigeria has developed to be a very controversial topic. What are 5G networks? How does 5G work? What are the advantages of it? This and many more related questions would be answered in this article.
What is the 5G network?
5G Network or Fifth Generation Network is the latest development in technological innovation, intended to support the speed and responsiveness of remote organizations significantly. Information through this network can now move at multigigabit speeds, for certain tests putting top paces as high as 20 gigabits each second (Gbps). These speeds are quicker than ordinary network rates and have a latency of 1 millisecond (ms) or less, making them ideal for ongoing applications. Because of higher open transmission capacity and improved receiving wire innovation, 5G networks will help significantly increase the volume of how information is passed.
5G networks rely on a set of cell sites that split their territory into sectors and transmit encoded data via radio waves. Every cell site must be connected to the network backbone, whether by cable or wireless backhaul. 5G changes the way data is encoded and gives carriers a lot more alternatives when it comes to airwave to use.
5G technology improves more than simply connection speed; its most significant benefit is its ultra-fast response time or latency. The ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC) of 5G distinguishes it from previous cellular generations. In fact, the technology allows for 250 times faster responses than people. For example, thanks to 5G’s excellent dependability and low latency, a car manufacturer may avoid damage to automobile parts while maintaining the assembly line’s speed. This lays the groundwork for developments that would not have been achievable with other communication methods.
The reduced latency technology of 5G will help industries with tight connectivity requirements the most. 5G is the missing component in the automotive business.
To meet the growing reliance on mobile and internet-enabled devices, 5G networks and services will be deployed in stages over the next several years. Overall, 5G is likely to be successful.
How does 5G Network work?
Radio frequencies (also known as spectrums) are used in wireless communications systems to transmit data over long distances.
5G is similar to 4G, however, it uses higher radio frequencies that are less crowded. This enables it to transport more data at a much faster rate. Millimeter waves are the higher frequency bands (mmwaves). Regulators have opened them available for licensing after they were previously unlicensed. Because the necessary equipment was both unavailable and expensive, they had mostly gone unnoticed by the general population.
While higher bands are faster in carrying data, sending across long distances can be problematic. Physical objects, such as trees and buildings, can easily block them. 5G will use numerous input and output antennae to improve signals and capacity across the wireless network to overcome this difficulty.
Smaller transmitters will also be used in the technology. Instead of employing single stand-alone masts, they are mounted on buildings and street lights. According to current predictions, 5G will be able to accommodate 1,000 more devices per meter than 4G.
A physical network can also be sliced into several virtual networks using 5G technology. This means that operators will be able to supply the proper slice of network, based on how it is being utilized, and so better manage their networks. This means that, depending on the importance of the task, an operator will be able to choose varying slice capacities. Simpler devices might be segregated from more complex and demanding applications, such as managing driverless vehicles, while a single user streaming a video would use a different slice of a corporation.
Businesses will also be able to rent their own segregated and insulated network slice to keep them distinct from other Internet traffic.
How is the 5G network different from 4G?
Perhaps the largest distinction between 4G and 5G will be its potential to operate as a gateway for the Internet of Things or the linked world. Smart cities, autonomous cars, smart homes, industries, networked factories, and even wearables (like your fitness tracker) can only be viable with hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of devices connected together working safely, reliably, and uninterrupted. This is achievable thanks to 5G’s capabilities. This degree of connectivity will be critical to meeting the UK’s climate ambitions, with savings of up to 269 megatonnes of CO2 predicted by 2035 – nearly as much as all of England’s emissions in 2018. (280 megatonnes).
— Fast speed delivery
The speed of 5G is estimated to be roughly 100 times that of 4G. With those speeds, you could download a two-hour movie in less than ten seconds, compared to seven minutes on 4G. (no more panicking while trying to download your in-flight entertainment on the tarmac before the plane takes off).
Rapid speeds have obvious consumer applications, such as movie streaming and app downloads, but they’ll be critical in a variety of other situations as well. Rapid speeds have obvious consumer applications, such as movie streaming and app downloads, but they’ll be critical in a variety of other situations as well. Manufacturing experts discuss the idea of installing video cameras around a facility and rapidly collecting and analyzing vast amounts of data to check product quality in real-time.
Because most 5G networks are based on super-high-frequency airways, commonly known as high-band spectrum, those speeds are achievable. Higher frequencies are capable of transmitting significantly more data at much quicker speeds than 4G.
The introduction of 5G can address this because ‘network slicing,’ or splitting the network to adjust speed, capacity, coverage, encryption, and security by reassigning resources from one ‘slice’ to another that need it, becomes much simpler.
To put it another way, each slice will rely on a unique ‘slice SIM,’ also known as the’sSIM,’ which will be stored in your 5G SIM, similar to how each flat in a building has a unique key to allow only allowed persons to access.
With 5G, the better performance also implies decreased latency (the delay between sending and receiving information).
This is 200 milliseconds for 4G, which is close to the 250 milliseconds it takes humans to respond to visual input. The delay rate for 5G is substantially lower: only 1 millisecond.
Connected automobiles and vehicle-to-vehicle information (aka V2X), virtual-reality gaming, remote surgical operations, and translation software will all benefit from the use of 5G networks to send and receive data swiftly.
To put it another way, IoT and 5G are a perfect match.
5G working with 4G
Whenever a 5G connectivity is established, the user device will connect to both the 4G and 5G networks, using the 4G network to provide control signaling and the 5G network to help offer a high-speed connection by extending the 4G capacity. Where 5G coverage is restricted, data is transmitted through the 4G network, ensuring a constant connection. Essentially, the 5G network complements the existing 4G network with this design.
High-band spectrum is required for 5G’s huge speeds, capacity, and low latency. However, the high-band spectrum is unreliable due to its tiny coverage area.
Even in cities where carriers claim to have implemented 5G, staying connected to the network can be difficult.
Even after 5G-enabled gadgets become more generally used, it’s likely that consumers will use a combination of 4G and 5G for a long time. When your device is in close proximity to a 5G tower, it will connect and utilize the superfast speeds. If you aren’t connected, your device will revert to 4G mode.
When is the 5G network going to be available in Nigeria?
Between 2022 and 2023, the Federal Government has emphasized that Abuja, Lagos, Rivers, Kaduna, Gombe, and Anambra will be the initial six states in Nigeria to get 5G Network innovation.
In its ‘Public Policy on 5G Networks For Nigeria’s Digital Economy,’ the Federal Government revealed this. Different states will actually want to utilize 5G administrations beginning in 2025, as indicated by the report.
It also stated that the 5G auction winners had until February 2022 to pay for the spectrum or risk losing it. After payment in February, the official date of the license is expected to begin counting. It also stated that commercial 5G services will be available in the country within 12 months of the license’s effective date.
Is 5G a safe technology?
Yes. Despite anti-5G protesters have expressed worries about the technology, notably in respect to radiation, the study demonstrates that there is no scientific proof of any hazards.
Indeed, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which examines the health risks of radio broadcasts, has deemed 5G to be fully safe.
What level of security does 5G provide?
Most of the security could come from network slicing, which can be accomplished even more simply with 5G. Network slicing is the dividing of a network to tailor speed, capacity, coverage, encryption, and security.
Slicing provides companies and others with a dedicated network that allows them to fully control and support their IoT solutions for dependable communications, guaranteed quality of service, and Cloud or Edge-based compute.
This can offer an extra layer of protection not available with WIFI, which is shared with other users on the spectrum and thus more readily tampered with, and is more difficult to implement with 4G.
If a corporation has highly sensitive data that must be sent across fundamentally different pieces of the network to ensure privacy, slicing can enable that for 5G very effortlessly.
Also check: The Top Cybersecurity Trends to look for in 2022
Will 5G take the place of 4G? When?
5G isn’t going to take over from 4G anytime soon. Some experts believe it will be decades before 4G is completely phased out.
This is especially true in rural locations, where deployment costs are likely to be high and reducing latency isn’t as critical.
5G network is expected to revolutionize a variety of industries, including health, agriculture, and education. For home users, 5G network will make downloading content significantly faster, such as downloading a 2-hour movie in less than 10 seconds versus 7 minutes with 4G.
5G network is poised to change how services are delivered in the future for major sectors. Agriculture and health, for example, are particularly well-positioned to profit from 5G network advantages. Sensor technology is being used on farms to monitor soil moisture in order to boost harvests while using less water. Within a given region (such as a farm), 5G network is expected to be able to connect 10 times the number of devices as 4G.
The most obvious benefit of 5G network technology is increased network performance, especially when compared to 4G technology. 5G networks should be 10 times faster than third-generation networks, according to ITU regulations. In comparison to the 500 kbps to 10 Mbps average speed of 4G networks, the real-world average speed of contemporary 5G networks is between 25 Mbps and 100 Mbps.
Furthermore, connecting to 5G networks should give users a bandwidth of around 200 Mbps and network latency of 20 to 30 milliseconds compared to the 2 Mbps bandwidth and 100 to 500 milliseconds latency of third-generation technology. Newer frequency allocations, the use of higher frequencies, and the integration of additional wireless communication technologies like as massive MIMO and orthogonal communication all contribute to improved performance.